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Evidence and reference documents

Below you will find the guiding documents and evidence for falls prevention strategies

Falls Prevention

  1. Department of Health, Western Australia (2014) Falls Prevention Model of Care. Perth: Health Strategy and Networks, Department of Health, Western Australia. Retrieved from
  2. Australian Commission for Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) (2009) Preventing Falls and Harm From Falls in Older People: Best Practice Guidelines for Australian Community Care.  Canberra: Australian Government. Retrieved from
  3. Department of Health, Western Australian. Evidence based practice and research for falls prevention. Retrieved from
  4. Gillespie, L. D., Robertson, M., Gillespie, W.J., Sherrington, C., Gates, S., Clemson, L.M., & Lamb, S.E. (2013) Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Retrieved from
  5. Department of Health, Western Australia (2012) WA Health Promotion Strategic framework 2012-2016. Perth: Chronic Disease Prevention Directorate, Department of Health, Western Australia. Retrieved from

Falls Facts

  1. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) (2010) Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Summary of Findings, 2009. ABS cat. no. 4433.0. Canberra: ABS. Retrieved from
  2. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW): Bradley, C. (2013) Trends in Hospitalisations due to falls by older people, Australia 1999-00 to 2010-11, Injury Research and Statistics no. 84. cat. no. INJCAT 160. Canberra: AIHW. Retrieved from
  3. Australia and New Zealand Falls Prevention Society (ANZFPS). Info About Falls. Retrieved from
  4. Ballestas, T., Xiao, J., McEvoy, S., & Somerford, P. (2011) The Epidemiology of Injury in Western Australia, 2000-2008Perth: Department of Health WA
  5. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (2014) Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths and Accidents (STEADI) Stay Independent. Retrieved from
  6. Department of Health and Ageing  (2011) Falls can be Prevented! A Guide to Preventing Falls for Older People. Retrieved from$File/Don%27t%20fall%20for%20it.pdf
  7. Lord, S. R, Sherrington, C, Menz, H. B & Close, J. C. T. (2007) Falls in Older People: Risk Factors and Strategies for Falls Prevention (2nd ed.) Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from
  8. National Public Health Partnership. (2005) The National Falls Prevention for Older People Plan: 2004 Onwards. Canberra: NPHP. Retrieved from:
  9. Rubenstein, L. Z. & Josephson, K. R. (2009) Falls and their Prevention in Elderly People: What does the Evidence Show? Medical Clinics of North America, 90(5), pp. 807-24. Retrieved from
  10. Tinneti, M. E. (2003) Preventing Falls in Elderly Persons. New England Journal of Medicine, 348(1), pp. 42-9. Retrieved from
  11. World Health Organisation (2007) Global Age Friendly Cities: A Guide. World Health Organisation. Geneva. Retrieved from

Move Your Body

Build Your Balance

  1. Li, F., Harmer, P., Fisher, J., McAuley, E, Chaumeton, N., Eckstrom, E., & Wilson, N. L. (2005) Tai Chi and Falls Reductions in Older Adults: A Randomised Controlled TrialJournal of Gerontology, 60A(20), pp. 187-194. Retrieved from
  2. Rubenstein, L. Z., & Josephson, K. R. (2006) Falls and their Prevention in Elderly People: What does the Evidence Show? Medical Clinics in North America, 90(5), pp. 807-24. Retrieved from
  3. Sattin, R. W., Easley, K. A, Wolf, S. L., Chen, Y., & Kutner, M. H. (2005) Reduction in Fear of Falling Through Intense Tai Chi Exercise Training in Older, Transitionally Frail Adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53, pp.1168-1178. Retrieved from (abstract only)
  4. Voukelatos, A., Cumming, R. G., Lord, S. R., & Rissel, C. (2007) A Randomised Controlled Trial of Tai Chi for the Prevention of Falls: The Central Sydney Tai Chi TrialJournal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55, pp. 1185-1191. Retrieved from (abstract only)

Strengthen Your Legs

  1. State Government of Victoria (2012) Ageing – Muscles, Bones and Joints. Retrieved from

Improve Your Health

Check Your Medicines

  1. Jorm, A., Grayso, D., Creasey, H., Waite, L., & Broe, G. (2000) Long-Term Benzodiazepine Use by Elderly People Living in the Community. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 24(1), pp. 7-10. Retrieved from (abstract only)
  2. National Prescribing Service Limited (2012) A Reduction Plan for Your Sleeping TabletsRetrieved from
  3. National Prescribing Service Limited (2013) Anticipating the Risks of Polypharmacy. Retrieved from
  4. The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (2012) Falls Prevention in Older Adults; Assessment and Management. Retrieved from
  5.  NHMRC Cognitive Decline Partnership Centre, University of Sydney, in Collaboration with the Australian Deprescribing Network and NPS MedicineWise (2018) Quality Use of Medicines to Optimise Ageing in Older Australians: Recommendations for a National Strategic Action Plan to Reduce Inappropriate Polypharmacy. Retrieved from:

Keep a Healthy Mind

  1. Australian Government Department of Health (2013) Reduce your Risk: New National Guidelines for Alcohol Consumption. Retreived from$File/adult.pdf
  2. Liu-Ambrose, T., Nagamatsu, L. S., Hsu, C, L., & Bolandzedeh, N. (2013) Emerging Concept: ‘Central Benefit Model’ of Exercise in Falls PreventionBritish Journal of Sports Medicine, 47, pp. 115-117
  3. State Government of Victoria (2011) Healthy Ageing – Stay Mentally Healthy. Retrieved from

Fuel Your Body

  1. Daly, R. M., Gagnon, C., Lu, Z. X., Magliano, D, J., Dunstan, D. W., Sikara, K. A., Zimmet, P. Z., Ebeling, P. R., & Shaw, J. E. (2012) Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and its Determinants in Australian Adults Aged 25 Years and Older: A National, Population-Based StudyClinical Endocrinology, 77, pp. 26-35. Retrieved from (abstract only)
  2. Tang, B. M. P., Eslick, G. D., Smith, C., & Bensoussan, A. (2007) Use of Calcium or Calcium in Combination with Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent Fractures and Bone Loss in People Aged 50 Years and Older: A Meta-Analysis. The Lancet, 370, pp. 657-66. Retrieved from (abstract only)

Remove Hazards

Make Your Home Safer

  1. Cumming, R., Thomas, M., Szonyi, G., O’Neill, E., Westbury, C., & Frampton, G. (1999) Home Visits by an Occupational Therapist for Assessment and Modification of Environmental Hazards: A Randomised Trial of Falls PreventionJournal of the American Geriatrics Society, 47(12), pp. 1397-1402. Retrieved from (abstract only)

Check Your Eyesight

  1. Harwood, R., Foss, A., Osborn, F., Gregson, R., Zaman, A., & Masaud, T. (2005) Falls and Health Status in Elderly Women Following First Eye Cataract Surgery: A Randomised Controlled TrialBritish Journal of Opthamology, 89(1), pp. 53-59. Retrieved from (abstract only)
  2. Lord, S., & Dayhew, J. (2001) Visual Risk Factors for Falls in Older People. Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, 49(5), pp. 508-515. Retrieved from (abstract only)
  3. Lord, S., & Dayhew, J. (2001) Multifocal Glasses Impair Edge-Contrast Sensitivity and Depth Perception and Increase the Risk of Falls in Older People. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50(11), pp. 53-59. Retrieved from (abstract only)

Wear Safe Footwear

  1. Lord, S., Sherrington, C., & Menz, H. (2007) Falls in Older People: Risk Factors and Strategies for Falls PreventionNew York: Cambridge University Press

Other useful sources of falls prevention evidence


Stay On Your Feet® is provided by Injury Matters and funded by the Western Australian Department of Health.

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Government of Western Australia Department of Health Injury Matters