Below you will find the guiding documents and evidence for falls prevention strategies used to develop content within the Stay On Your Feet® website.
- Department of Health, Western Australia (2014) Falls Prevention Model of Care. Perth: Health Strategy and Networks, Department of Health, Western Australia. Retrieved from http://www.healthnetworks.health.wa.gov.au/modelsofcare/docs/Falls_Model_of_Care.pdf
- Australian Commission for Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) (2009) Preventing Falls and Harm From Falls in Older People: Best Practice Guidelines for Australian Community Care. Canberra: Australian Government. Retrieved from http://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Guidelines-COMM.pdf
- Department of Health, Western Australian. Evidence based practice and research for falls prevention. Retrieved from http://ww2.health.wa.gov.au/Corporate/Articles/A_E/Evidence-based-practice-and-research-for-falls-prevention
- Gillespie, L. D., Robertson, M., Gillespie, W.J., Sherrington, C., Gates, S., Clemson, L.M., & Lamb, S.E. (2013) Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Retrieved from http://www.cochrane.org/CD007146/MUSKINJ_interventions-for-preventing-falls-in-older-people-living-in-the-community
- Lord, S. R. Falls in older people: Risk factors and strategies for prevention. (Cambridge University Press, 2007).
- Chronic Disease Prevention Directorate. Western Australian Health Promotion Strategic Framework 2017 – 2021. (Department of Health, 2017). Retrieved from https://ww2.health.wa.gov.au/~/media/Files/Corporate/Reports%20and%20publications/HPSF/WA-Health-Promotion-Strategic-Framework-2017-2021.pdf
- Sweeney, R., Meade, R. & Wold, C. Western Australian Falls Report 2019. 28 (Injury Matters, 2019). Retrieved from https://injurymatters.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Injury-Matters-2019-Falls-Report-Digital-Edition.pdf
- Merema, M. & Radomiljac, A. Health and Wellbeing of Adults in Western Australia 2017, Overview and Trends. (Department of Health, Western Australia, 2018). Retrieved from https://ww2.health.wa.gov.au/~/media/Files/Corporate/Reports%20and%20publications/Population%20surveys/Health-and-Wellbeing-of-Adults-in-Western-Australia-2017.pdf
- Kreisfeld, R., Pointer, S. & Bradley, C. Trends in hospitalisations due to falls by older people, Australia 2002-03 to 2012-13. (AIHW, 2017). Available from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/injury/hospitalisations-falls-older-people-2002-2013/contents/table-of-contents
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) (2016) Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Summary of Findings, 2015. ABS cat. no. 4433.0. Canberra: ABS. Retrieved from https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/4430.0
- Australia and New Zealand Falls Prevention Society (ANZFPS). Info About Falls. Retrieved from http://www.anzfallsprevention.org/info/
- Ballestas, T., Xiao, J., McEvoy, S., & Somerford, P. (2011) The Epidemiology of Injury in Western Australia, 2000-2008. Perth: Department of Health WA
- Department of Health and Ageing (2011) Falls can be Prevented! A Guide to Preventing Falls for Older People. Retrieved from https://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/E23F5F7BF8F07264CA257BF0002043F5/$File/Don%27t%20fall%20for%20it.pdf
- World Health Organisation (2007) Global Age Friendly Cities: A Guide. World Health Organisation. Geneva. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/ageing/publications/Global_age_friendly_cities_Guide_English.pdf
Move Your Body
Build Your Balance
- Sherrington, C. et al. Exercise to prevent falls in older adults: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med (2016). doi:10.1136/bjsports-2016-096547
- Howe, T., Rochester, L., Neil, F., Skelton, D. & Ballinger, C. Exercise for improving balance in older people (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews No. CD004963, (2011).
- Chodzko-Zajko, W. J. et al. Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 41, 1510–1530 (2009).
- Curtis, E., Litwic, A., Cooper, C. & Dennison, E. Determinants of Muscle and Bone Aging: DETERMINANTS OF MUSCLE AND BONE AGING. Journal of Cellular Physiology 230, 2618–2625 (2015).
- Clark, D. J. et al. Longitudinal Decline of Neuromuscular Activation and Power in Healthy Older Adults. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 68, 1419–1425 (2013).
- Gray, M. & Paulson, S. Developing a measure of muscular power during a functional task for older adults. BMC Geriatrics 14, (2014).
Strengthen Your Legs
- State Government of Victoria (2018) Ageing – Muscles, Bones and Joints. Retrieved from http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Ageing_muscles_bones_and_joints
- Aagaard, P., Suetta, C., Caserotti, P., Magnusson, S. P. & Kjaer, M. Role of the nervous system in sarcopenia and muscle atrophy with aging: strength training as a countermeasure. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 20, 49–64 (2010).
- Granacher, U., Zahner, L. & Gollhofer, A. Strength, power, and postural control in seniors: Considerations for functional adaptations and for fall prevention. European Journal of Sport Science 8, 325–340 (2008).
Improve Your Health
Check Your Medicines
- National Prescribing Service Limited (2015). Benzodiazepine dependence: reduce the risk. Retrieved from https://www.nps.org.au/news/benzodiazepine-dependence-reduce-the-risk
- The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (2012) Falls Prevention in Older Adults; Assessment and Management. Retrieved from http://www.racgp.org.au/afp/2012/december/falls-prevention/
- NHMRC Cognitive Decline Partnership Centre, University of Sydney, in Collaboration with the Australian Deprescribing Network and NPS MedicineWise (2018) Quality Use of Medicines to Optimise Ageing in Older Australians: Recommendations for a National Strategic Action Plan to Reduce Inappropriate Polypharmacy. Retrieved from: http://sydney.edu.au/medicine/cdpc/resources/quality-use-of-medicines.pdf
- Zia, A., Kamaruzzaman, S. B. & Tan, M. P. Polypharmacy and falls in older people: Balancing evidence-based medicine against falls risk. Postgraduate Medicine 127, 330–337 (2015).
- Kelly, D. M. M., Frick, E. M. M. & Hale, L. S. P. How the medication review can help to reduce risk of falls in older patients. [Miscellaneous Article]. Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants 24, 30–34 (2011).
Keep a Healthy Mind
- Welmer, A.-K., Rizzuto, D., Laukka, E. J., Johnell, K. & Fratiglioni, L. Cognitive and Physical Function in Relation to the Risk of Injurious Falls in Older Adults: A Population-Based Study. GERONA glw141 (2016). doi:10.1093/gerona/glw141
- Muir, S. W., Gopaul, K. & Montero Odasso, M. M. The role of cognitive impairment in fall risk among older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Age Ageing 41, 299–308 (2012).
- Liu-Ambrose, T., Nagamatsu, L. S., Hsu, C, L., & Bolandzedeh, N. (2013) Emerging Concept: ‘Central Benefit Model’ of Exercise in Falls Prevention. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47, pp. 115-117
- Government of Western Australia Mental Health Commission. Mental health and you. Available from https://www.mhc.wa.gov.au/your-health-and-wellbeing/mental-health-and-you/
- State Government of Victoria (2011) Healthy Ageing – Stay Mentally Healthy. Retrieved from http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/healthy_ageing_stay_mentally_active?open
Fuel Your Body
- National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia), Australia & Department of Health and Ageing. Eat for health: Australian dietary guidelines ; providing the scientific evidence for healthier Australian diets. (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2013).
- Mithal, A. et al. Impact of nutrition on muscle mass, strength, and performance in older adults. Osteoporos Int 24, 1555–1566 (2013).
- Daly, R. M., Gagnon, C., Lu, Z. X., Magliano, D, J., Dunstan, D. W., Sikara, K. A., Zimmet, P. Z., Ebeling, P. R., & Shaw, J. E. (2012) Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and its Determinants in Australian Adults Aged 25 Years and Older: A National, Population-Based Study. Clinical Endocrinology, 77, pp. 26-35.
- Tang, B. M. P., Eslick, G. D., Smith, C., & Bensoussan, A. (2007) Use of Calcium or Calcium in Combination with Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent Fractures and Bone Loss in People Aged 50 Years and Older: A Meta-Analysis. The Lancet, 370, pp. 657-66.
Make Your Home Safer
- Letts, L. et al. The physical environment as a fall risk factor in older adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and cohort studies. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal 57, 51–64 (2010).
- Clemson, L., Mackenzie, L., Ballinger, C., Close, J. C. T. & Cumming, R. G. Environmental Interventions to Prevent Falls in Community-Dwelling Older People: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials. Journal of Aging and Health 20, 954–971 (2008).
Check Your Eyesight
- Blaylock, S. E. & Vogtle, L. K. Falls prevention interventions for older adults with low vision: A scoping review. Can J Occup Ther 84, 139–147 (2017).
- Lord, S. R. Visual risk factors for falls in older people. Age and Ageing 35, ii42–ii45 (2006).
- Vance, E. & Lord, S. Vision impairment and fall risk in older people. (NSW Falls Prevention Network and Neuroscience Research Australia).
- Lord, S., & Dayhew, J. (2001) Multifocal Glasses Impair Edge-Contrast Sensitivity and Depth Perception and Increase the Risk of Falls in Older People. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50(11), pp. 53-59.
Wear Safe Footwear
- Davis, A., Haines, T. & Williams, C. Do footwear styles cause falls or increase falls risk in healthy older adults? A systematic review. Footwear Science 11, 13–23 (2019).
- Spink, M. J. et al. Effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to prevent falls in community dwelling older people with disabling foot pain: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 342, d3411 (2011).
- Menant, J. C., Steele, J. R., Menz, H. B., Munro, B. J. & Lord, S. R. Optimizing footwear for older people at risk of falls. J Rehabil Res Dev 45, 1167–1181 (2008).\
- Menz, H. B., Auhl, M. & Spink, M. J. Foot problems as a risk factor for falls in community-dwelling older people: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Maturitas 118, 7–14 (2018).
Other useful sources of falls prevention evidence
- ProFaNE the Prevention of Falls network Europe
- Cochrane Library
- WA Health Epidemiology Branch to assist with state based injury data
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – Stopping Elderly Accidents Deaths and Injuries (STEADI)