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Evidence and reference documents

Below you will find the guiding documents and evidence for falls prevention strategies used to develop content within the Stay On Your Feet® website. 

Falls Prevention

  1. Department of Health, Western Australia (2014) Falls Prevention Model of Care. Perth: Health Strategy and Networks, Department of Health, Western Australia. Retrieved from
  2. Australian Commission for Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) (2009) Preventing Falls and Harm From Falls in Older People: Best Practice Guidelines for Australian Community Care. Canberra: Australian Government. Retrieved from
  3. Department of Health, Western Australian. Evidence based practice and research for falls prevention. Retrieved from
  4. Gillespie, L. D., Robertson, M., Gillespie, W.J., Sherrington, C., Gates, S., Clemson, L.M., & Lamb, S.E. (2013) Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Retrieved from
  5. Lord, S. R. Falls in older people: Risk factors and strategies for prevention. (Cambridge University Press, 2007).
  6. Chronic Disease Prevention Directorate. Western Australian Health Promotion Strategic Framework 2017 – 2021. (Department of Health, 2017). Retrieved from
  7. World Health Organization. Step safely: strategies for preventing and managing falls across the life-course. (2021). Retrieved from 

Falls Facts

  1. Sweeney, R., Meade, R. & Visser, M. 2020 Western Australian Falls Report. (2020). Retrieved from:
  2. Sweeney, R., Meade, R. & Wold, C. Western Australian Falls Report 2019. 28 (Injury Matters, 2019). Retrieved from
  3. Merema, M. & Radomiljac, A. Health and Wellbeing of Adults in Western Australia 2017, Overview and Trends. (Department of Health, Western Australia, 2018). Retrieved from 
  4. Kreisfeld, R., Pointer, S. & Bradley, C. Trends in hospitalisations due to falls by older people, Australia 2002-03 to 2012-13. (AIHW, 2017). Available from
  5. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) (2016) Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Summary of Findings, 2015. ABS cat. no. 4433.0. Canberra: ABS. Retrieved from
  6. Australia and New Zealand Falls Prevention Society (ANZFPS). Info About Falls. Retrieved from
  7. Ballestas, T., Xiao, J., McEvoy, S., & Somerford, P. (2011) The Epidemiology of Injury in Western Australia, 2000-2008Perth: Department of Health WA
  8. Department of Health and Ageing  (2011) Falls can be Prevented! A Guide to Preventing Falls for Older People. Retrieved from$File/Don%27t%20fall%20for%20it.pdf
  9. World Health Organisation (2007) Global Age Friendly Cities: A Guide. World Health Organisation. Geneva. Retrieved from

Move Your Body

Build Your Balance

  1. Sherrington, C. et al. Exercise to prevent falls in older adults: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med (2016). doi:10.1136/bjsports-2016-096547
  2. Howe, T., Rochester, L., Neil, F., Skelton, D. & Ballinger, C. Exercise for improving balance in older people (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews No. CD004963, (2011).
  3. Chodzko-Zajko, W. J. et al. Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 41, 1510–1530 (2009).
  4. Curtis, E., Litwic, A., Cooper, C. & Dennison, E. Determinants of Muscle and Bone Aging: DETERMINANTS OF MUSCLE AND BONE AGING. Journal of Cellular Physiology 230, 2618–2625 (2015).
  5. Clark, D. J. et al. Longitudinal Decline of Neuromuscular Activation and Power in Healthy Older Adults. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 68, 1419–1425 (2013).
  6. Gray, M. & Paulson, S. Developing a measure of muscular power during a functional task for older adults. BMC Geriatrics 14, (2014).

Strengthen Your Legs

  1. State Government of Victoria (2018) Ageing – Muscles, Bones and Joints. Retrieved from
  2. Aagaard, P., Suetta, C., Caserotti, P., Magnusson, S. P. & Kjaer, M. Role of the nervous system in sarcopenia and muscle atrophy with aging: strength training as a countermeasure. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 20, 49–64 (2010).
  3. Granacher, U., Zahner, L. & Gollhofer, A. Strength, power, and postural control in seniors: Considerations for functional adaptations and for fall prevention. European Journal of Sport Science 8, 325–340 (2008).

Improve Your Health

Check Your Medicines

  1. National Prescribing Service Limited (2015). Benzodiazepine dependence: reduce the risk. Retrieved from
  2. The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (2012) Falls Prevention in Older Adults; Assessment and Management. Retrieved from
  3. NHMRC Cognitive Decline Partnership Centre, University of Sydney, in Collaboration with the Australian Deprescribing Network and NPS MedicineWise (2018) Quality Use of Medicines to Optimise Ageing in Older Australians: Recommendations for a National Strategic Action Plan to Reduce Inappropriate Polypharmacy. Retrieved from:
  4. Zia, A., Kamaruzzaman, S. B. & Tan, M. P. Polypharmacy and falls in older people: Balancing evidence-based medicine against falls risk. Postgraduate Medicine 127, 330–337 (2015).
  5. Kelly, D. M. M., Frick, E. M. M. & Hale, L. S. P. How the medication review can help to reduce risk of falls in older patients. [Miscellaneous Article]. Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants 24, 30–34 (2011).

Keep a Healthy Mind

  1. Welmer, A.-K., Rizzuto, D., Laukka, E. J., Johnell, K. & Fratiglioni, L. Cognitive and Physical Function in Relation to the Risk of Injurious Falls in Older Adults: A Population-Based Study. GERONA glw141 (2016). doi:10.1093/gerona/glw141
  2. Muir, S. W., Gopaul, K. & Montero Odasso, M. M. The role of cognitive impairment in fall risk among older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Age Ageing 41, 299–308 (2012).
  3. Liu-Ambrose, T., Nagamatsu, L. S., Hsu, C, L., & Bolandzedeh, N. (2013) Emerging Concept: ‘Central Benefit Model’ of Exercise in Falls Prevention. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47, pp. 115-117
  4. Government of Western Australia Mental Health Commission. Mental health and you. Available from
  5. State Government of Victoria (2011) Healthy Ageing – Stay Mentally Healthy. Retrieved from

Fuel Your Body

  1. National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia), Australia & Department of Health and Ageing. Eat for health: Australian dietary guidelines ; providing the scientific evidence for healthier Australian diets. (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2013).
  2. Mithal, A. et al. Impact of nutrition on muscle mass, strength, and performance in older adults. Osteoporos Int 24, 1555–1566 (2013).
  3. Daly, R. M., Gagnon, C., Lu, Z. X., Magliano, D, J., Dunstan, D. W., Sikara, K. A., Zimmet, P. Z., Ebeling, P. R., & Shaw, J. E. (2012) Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and its Determinants in Australian Adults Aged 25 Years and Older: A National, Population-Based Study. Clinical Endocrinology, 77, pp. 26-35.
  4. Tang, B. M. P., Eslick, G. D., Smith, C., & Bensoussan, A. (2007) Use of Calcium or Calcium in Combination with Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent Fractures and Bone Loss in People Aged 50 Years and Older: A Meta-Analysis. The Lancet, 370, pp. 657-66.

Remove Hazards

Make Your Home Safer

  1. Letts, L. et al. The physical environment as a fall risk factor in older adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and cohort studies. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal 57, 51–64 (2010).
  2. Clemson, L., Mackenzie, L., Ballinger, C., Close, J. C. T. & Cumming, R. G. Environmental Interventions to Prevent Falls in Community-Dwelling Older People: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials. Journal of Aging and Health 20, 954–971 (2008).

Check Your Eyesight

  1. Blaylock, S. E. & Vogtle, L. K. Falls prevention interventions for older adults with low vision: A scoping review. Can J Occup Ther 84, 139–147 (2017).
  2. Lord, S. R. Visual risk factors for falls in older people. Age and Ageing 35, ii42–ii45 (2006).
  3. Vance, E. & Lord, S. Vision impairment and fall risk in older people. (NSW Falls Prevention Network and Neuroscience Research Australia).
  4. Lord, S., & Dayhew, J. (2001) Multifocal Glasses Impair Edge-Contrast Sensitivity and Depth Perception and Increase the Risk of Falls in Older People. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50(11), pp. 53-59.

Wear Safe Footwear

  1. Davis, A., Haines, T. & Williams, C. Do footwear styles cause falls or increase falls risk in healthy older adults? A systematic review. Footwear Science 11, 13–23 (2019).
  2. Spink, M. J. et al. Effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to prevent falls in community dwelling older people with disabling foot pain: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 342, d3411 (2011).
  3. Menant, J. C., Steele, J. R., Menz, H. B., Munro, B. J. & Lord, S. R. Optimizing footwear for older people at risk of falls. J Rehabil Res Dev 45, 1167–1181 (2008).\
  4. Menz, H. B., Auhl, M. & Spink, M. J. Foot problems as a risk factor for falls in community-dwelling older people: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Maturitas 118, 7–14 (2018).

Other useful sources of falls prevention evidence

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Stay On Your Feet® is provided by Injury Matters and funded by the Western Australian Department of Health.

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Government of Western Australia Department of Health Injury Matters
Injury Matters acknowledge the Whadjuk Noongar people as the traditional custodians of the land on which we live and work, and recognises Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples continuing connection to land, waters and community across Western Australia.